2007 Lexus LX 470
Base MSRP: $67,395
Model Code: 9620
Doors: 5 Door
Max Power: 268hp
XM Satellite Radio (PIO) – $486
Audio system with satellite [P2] SIRIUS Satellite Radio (PIO)
SIRIUS Satellite Radio (PIO) – $486
Audio system with satellite [P7] XM Satellite Radio (PIO)
Rear Spoiler – $280
Cargo Net (PIO) – $59
Load restraint net
All Weather Mats (PIO) – $159
Plastic/rubber floor mats
Non Coded Item
Cargo Mat (PIO) – $92
Lexus Link – $900
Online information system Voice activating system includes phone and includes internet/e-mail Includes 1 year Safety Plan
Wheel Locks (PIO) – $79
Spare Wheel Lock (PIO) – $73
Spare wheel lock
Cargo Tray (PIO) – $129
Exhaust Tip (PIO) – $75
Wireless Headphones (PIO) – $182
Wireless headphones (additional two)
Night View – $2,200
Standard Paint Type – $0
Pearl paint [J004] Standard Paint Type And [J003] Standard Paint Type
Standard Paint Type – $0
Black paint [J003] Standard Paint Type And [J002] Standard Paint Type
Standard Paint Type – $0
Metallic paint [J004] Standard Paint Type And [J002] Standard Paint Type
Roof Rack with Cross Bars – $220
Removable roof rails
Sunroof Wind Deflector (PIO) – $89
Wind deflector behind seats
Trailer towing preparation includes tow hook
Underbody protection for fuel tank, for transfer case and for engine
Body color lower body side protection
Rear and side platform step
Rear mud flaps
Chrome/bright trim on side of body
Body color front and rear bumpers
12v power outlet: front and 2 , 12v power outlet: cargo and 1
Remote fuel filler door release
Memorized adjustment with two settings on door mirror position and steering wheel position with four driver’s seat positions
Front seats cigar lighter
Front and rear ashtray
Delayed/fade courtesy lights
Front and rear reading lights
Illuminated entry system
Cargo area light
Illuminated driver and passenger vanity mirror
Parking distance sensors rear and camera
Navigational systems : information type: full map and voice and touch screen controls DVD and color
Garage door opener
Coming home device
Voice activating system
Luxury trim wood & leather on gearknob, wood & leather on doors and wood/woodgrain on dashboard
Floor covering: carpet in load area
Leather seat upholstery with additional vinyl
Front seat center armrest
Rear seat center armrest
Bucket heated electrically adjustable driver and passenger seat with height adjustment, lumbar adjustment, five adjustments and tilt adjustment
Three asymmetrical split bench front facing reclining rear seats with zero adjustments tip/tumble
Split bench front facing removable symmetrical third row seats with three seat capacity
Lockable glove compartment
Door pockets/bins for driver seat, passenger seat and rear seats
Front seat back storage
Front seats cup holders fixed , rear seats cup holders pop out , 3rd row seats cup holders pop out
Full dashboard console , full floor console with covered storage box , partial overhead console with covered storage box
Ventilation system with recirculation setting and micro filter
Rear seats secondary ventilation controls
Air conditioning with climate control, rear control for climate control and rear outlet 3
Rear air conditioner
Power + diversity antenna
Mark Levinson RDS audio system with AM/FM, cassette, Disc Autochanger and six-disc remote changer
Steering wheel mounted remote audio controls
Audio anti-theft protection: integrated in dash
Rear separate audio control
Service interval indicator
Automatic drive indicator on dashboard
Oil pressure gauge
Door ajar warning
Low fuel level warning
Low washer fluid level warning
Computer with average speed, average fuel consumption, instantaneous fuel consumption and range for remaining fuel
Low tire pressure indicator
Projector beam lens halogen bulb headlights
Headlight control with time delay switch-off and dusk sensor
Front fog lights
Day time running lights
Door entry light
Automatic operation rear view mirror
Driver and passenger power heated body color door mirrors with automatic and automatic operation
Electric foldable mirrors
Remote control operation opening rear Â¼ windows
Fixed rear window with defogger and intermittent
Tinted glass on cabin, rear and side
Heat reflective glass
Windshield wipers with automatic intermittent wipe and rain sensor
Front and rear power windows with two one-touch
Front and rear roof airbag
Driver and passenger front airbag with occupant sensors and multi-stage deployment
Front side airbag
Two height adjustable head restraints on front seats , three height adjustable head restraints on rear seats , two height adjustable head restraints on 3rd row seats
Height adjustable 3-point reel front seat belts on driver seat and passenger seat with pre-tensioners
Height adjustable 3-point reel rear seat belts on driver side , height adjustable 3-point reel rear seat belts on passenger side , 3-point reel rear seat belts on center side
3-point reel third row seat belts on driver side , 3-point reel third row seat belts on passenger side , lap static third row seat belts on center side
Warranty and Fixed Charges
Fixed delivery charges: 715
Full car warranty: duration (months): 48 or distance (miles): 50,000
Powertrain warranty: duration (months): 72 or distance (miles): 70,000
Anticorrosion warranty: duration (months): 72 or distance (miles): unlimited
Road-side assistance warranty: duration (months): 48 or distance (miles): unlimited
Five-door sport utility vehicle body style 029N
Seating: eight seats
4,664 cc 4.7 liters V 8 front engine with 94 mm bore, 84 mm stroke, 10 compression ratio, double overhead cam, variable valve timing/camshaft and four valves per cylinder 2UZ-FE
Emission control level ULEV
Power: 200 kW , 268 HP SAE @ 5,400 rpm; 328 ft lb , 445 Nm @ 3,400 rpm
Fuel economy EPA highway (mpg): 17 and EPA city (mpg): 13
Full-time 4×4-wheel drive speed limited (manual only)
4.1:1 axle ratio
Center differential lock
Center limited slip differential
Electronic traction control via ABS & engine management
Automatic five-speed transmission with mode select, lock-up, electronic control, shift lever on floor, 3.52:1 first gear ratio, 2.042:1 second gear ratio, 1.4:1 third gear ratio, 1:1 fourth gear ratio, 0.716:1 fifth gear ratio, 3.224:1 reverse gear ratio, low/high gear ranges and 2.488:1 low/high gear ratio A750F and automatic
Auxiliary transmission cooler
Front and rear all seasons tires with 275 mm tire width, 60% tire pro
file, H tire rating and black sidewall official brochure tyre size
Front and rear alloy wheels with 18 inch rim diam and 8 inch rim width
Fullsize alloy rim under body spare wheel
Four disc brakes including four ventilated discs
Electronic brake distribution
Brake assist system
Wood & leather electrically adjustable multi-function steering wheel with tilt adjustment and telescopic adjustment easy entry
Multi-point injection fuel system
Premium unleaded fuel 91
25.4 gallon main premium unleaded fuel tank
Weights: gross vehicle weight rating (lbs) 6,860, curb weight (lbs) 5,590, gross trailer weight braked (lbs) 6,500 and max payload (lbs) 1,270
SUV specifics approach angle (degrees): 32 and departure angle (degrees): 26
External dimensions: overall length (inches): 192.5, overall width (inches): 76.4, overall height (inches): 72.8, ground clearance (inches): 9.8, wheelbase (inches): 112.2, front track (inches): 63.8, rear track (inches): 63.6 and curb to curb turning circle (feet): 39.7
Internal dimensions: front headroom (inches): 39.1, rear headroom (inches): 38.9, front hip room (inches): 58.6, rear hip room (inches): 57.9, front leg room (inches): 42.3, rear leg room (inches): 34.3, front shoulder room (inches): 61.3, rear shoulder room (inches): 61.1 and interior volume (cu ft): 136.2
Cargo capacity: rear seat down (cu ft): 90.4 and all seats in place (cu ft): 19.1
2007 Lexus LX470 Review
Back in 1996 Lexus entered the SUV market with the LX 450, a lightly redecorated version of the then-current Toyota Land Cruiser. Two years later when there was a new generation of Land Cruiser, the new second-generation LX 470 appeared alongside it. Since then, this built-like-a-truck SUV’s evolution has been quiet and effective. But there’s no getting around that this thing is getting long in the tooth. A third-generation LX should appear during 2007 as a 2008 model. Clearly the best thing about the 2007 Lexus LX 470 is the engineering that it shares with the Toyota Land Cruiser. There’s a rugged ladder frame under this SUV, an “Adaptive Variable” suspension tough enough to withstand a U.N. peacekeeping mission while being comfortable enough to deliver diplomats to the meeting ordering that mission, the transfer case has a low range for slogging out of trouble and every door closes with the reassuring thud of a sack of cement hitting a sidewalk. This is not a crossover SUV built from car parts, but a thoroughly capable any-weather, all-terrain, infinite-chaos slugger. For a vehicle so tough, however, the 2007 Lexus LX 470 does a splendid job of being luxurious. The interior is overstuffed with luxurious toys, the leather on the upholstery is supple and perfectly stitched, the ride is well mannered and the drivetrain operates in virtual silence. There’s ample room for five adults, but the third-row seat is awkward to reach and offers limited legroom. There’s nothing avant-garde about the LX 470. Those searching for a more modern take on the large luxury SUV will likely be happier with the Mercedes-Benz GL-Class. But even in its advancing age, the LX is still one of our top recommendations.
Body Styles, Trim Levels and Options
The 2007 Lexus LX 470 is a midsize luxury SUV. There’s only one trim level and it comes comprehensively equipped with power and heated front seats, illuminated running boards, automatic climate control, a DVD-based navigation system with an integrated back-up camera system, auto-dimming mirrors, a moonroof and virtually every other imaginable amenity. The standard Mark Levinson audio system features a dash-mounted six-CD changer, 11 speakers and the sort of sound clarity about which concert halls brag. Besides the new Limited Edition package, the option list is limited to a roof rack, the Lexus Link emergency communications system, a rear entertainment system, a rear spoiler, XM Satellite Radio and the fascinating Lexus Night View System.
Powertrains and Performance
All LX 470 models are powered by a 268-horsepower, 4.7-liter V8. Behind it is a five-speed automatic transmission feeding the standard dual-range transfer case and a full-time all-wheel-drive system. Should you want to tow, the LX, properly equipped, can lug up to 6,500 pounds.
The front airbag system includes a front passenger seat occupant detection sensor. Beyond that there are seat-mounted side airbags for the front seats and roll-sensing side-curtain airbags for the first- and second-row passengers. Antilock brakes, stability control and a specific off-road traction control system are all standard.
Interior Design and Special Features
While it shares some general design features with the Land Cruiser, the LX 470’s interior is opulent and well laid out. The front seats are relatively flat but beautifully upholstered in leather that’s almost too good to sit upon. The dashboard features Lexus’ signature Optitron instrumentation that glows with electro-luminescent brilliance and real bird’s-eye maple wood trim. In back, there’s a 60/40-split second row and a 50/50-split rear bench. The rear bench doesn’t fold flat, but it can be removed. As for features, the Night View System is the most advanced technology available on the LX. Using near infrared light, a charged coupled device camera and computerized image processing, the Night View System will project a black-and-white image on the bottom of the windshield that clearly shows what’s ahead of the vehicle even in pitch-black darkness. It’s a boon for LX owners who live on rural estates where street lighting is almost unheard of.
On the road the 2007 Lexus LX 470 drives like the big, beefy hulk that it is. The steering is less than involving, the acceleration is modest and the chassis responds to course changes with more dignity than athleticism. It’s always comfortable, always composed, but never much fun. Take it off-road, however, and the LX 470 seems to lose about 800 pounds of heft as it effectively conquers desperately cruddy terrain. The next Lexus LX will have to be outstanding to exceed the standards set by this one.
With prototypes of its successor already showing up in the lenses of spy photographers around the world, Lexus’ largest SUV, the LX 470, finishes its production run in 2007 virtually unchanged from the previous year. The V8’s power ratings fall slightly due to new testing procedures, though actual performance is unaffected. The only other significant change is the addition of a special “Limited Edition” model featuring Black Onyx paint, special wheels and distinctive exterior and interior trim.
Quiet and refined demeanor, capable backwoods performer, slick adjustable suspension, splendid interior materials, Lexus build quality.
2006 Lexus LX470 Review
The Lexus LX 470 offers luxurious comfort with outstanding off-road capability and strong towing capability. The LX shares many of the high-tech features of Lexus’s flagship sedan, the LS 430, including a video display that can help the driver spot objects (such as a child on a tricycle) behind the vehicle when backing up. Bluetooth communications technology allows hands-free operation of your cell phone without having to pull it out of your jacket pocket or purse. A Mark Levinson audio system, now standard, provides the ultimate in mobile music. Both seat-mounted side-impact airbags and side-curtain airbags look after your passengers’ safety. A tire-pressure monitor has been added to 2006 models.
Its interior is elegant and well equipped and can seat up to eight passengers. Its 4.7-liter V8 is smooth and powerful. The 2006 models are significantly more powerful than last year’s models, thanks to electronically variable valve timing (called VVT-i). This setup also helped the LX to become certified by California as a ULEV II ultra low emissions vehicle, and that same engine is used in all 50 states. The
five-speed automatic transmission is smooth and responsive. And the LX is rated to tow up to 5,000 pounds.
Active safety features, including Vehicle Stability Control, anti-lock brakes and traction control, work as a team to help the driver maintain control in an emergency handling situation. The systems sense when the LX is being driven off road and compensate accordingly. Six airbags and other passive safety features help protect occupants in the event of an accident.
Lexus offers the best quality, durability and reliability in the business, with retailers dedicated to customer satisfaction.
The 2006 Lexus LX 470 is available as one fully loaded model ($67,295). It’s equipped with a 4.7-liter V8, five-speed automatic transmission, full-time four-wheel drive with a locking center differential and four-wheel traction control. It also comes with an adaptive suspension with variable-rate damping and adjustable height control, and big P275/60HR18 mud-and-snow tires on 18-inch alloy wheels. Four-wheel disc brakes with ABS and vehicle stability control help drivers keep the LX 470 on course even in emergency conditions.
Also standard is a sumptuous leather interior and a boggling list of luxury and convenience features, including automatic climate control front and rear, power seats, door locks, windows and moonroof; a DVD-based navigation system; and a Mark Levinson stereo system with a six-disc DVD/CD auto changer, automatic sound leveling and a separate rear-seat controls.
Safety equipment is impressive. Standard are frontal airbags, seat-mounted side-impact airbags (for torso protection) and side curtain airbags (for head protection), along with front seat belts with pre-tensioners and force limiters, and a first aid kit. The side curtain airbags are designed to help provide protection for the four outboard passengers in the front and second-row seats in certain types of severe side impacts or in case of a severe tilt or rollover. Windshield wipers adjust for rain automatically and the windshield is coated with water repellent.
Options include a rear-seat DVD entertainment system ($2,469) that plays movies on a 6.5-inch overhead screen; put it in Park and front-seat passengers can watch, too, on the navigation screen. Wireless headphones ($182) are an additional option. XM satellite radio is available ($486). Night View ($2,200) is also available; it uses near-infrared technology after dark to help illuminate people, deer and other objects up to 500 feet away and display them on a section of the windshield in front of the driver. You can also order a roof rack with cross bars ($220), a rear spoiler ($280), a sunroof wind deflector ($89), a cargo net ($59), and a cargo mat ($92).
The LX 470 looks big, but it’s actually shorter than the LS 430 sedan and is designed to fit into a typical two-car garage.
The Lexus LX 470 is related to the Toyota Land Cruiser but presents a more upscale appearance. Body cladding, integrated running boards, a chrome Lexus grille, and elegant use of paint contribute to this impression. Graphite-finish wheels and LED taillights, both new for ’06, further distinguish the Lexus from the Toyota.
The overall result is a functionally handsome vehicle, although some of the newest luxury SUVs look more contemporary.
Lexus makes beautiful interiors and the LX 470 lives up to that reputation. Three rows of seating are provided. The LX 470 has room for eight people and seats six luxuriously. Large door openings make getting in and out easy.
The front seats are supremely comfortable. There’s a good view of the road ahead while large outside mirrors provide good rearward visibility. Attractive bird’s-eye maple trim adds an upscale look to the rich leather-trim upholstery. The steering wheel and shift knob are handsomely finished in a combination of wood and leather.
The LX is packed with luxury and convenience features. Big rear quarter windows swing out at the touch of a pair of dash-mounted buttons. Side mirrors retract electrically for parking in tight quarters. Auxiliary power outlets are provided in the dash, center console and rear cargo area. A trip computer, digital clock, and compass keep the driver well informed. A hydrocarbon sensor automatically switches the climate control to the Recirculate mode when high levels of air pollution are detected, while an activated charcoal micron filter removes dust, pollen, and odors from the interior air stream, a benefit for hay fever sufferers. Automatic climate controls are integrated into the navigation system. Steering-wheel audio controls make it easy to adjust volume and change pre-set radio stations.
The rearmost jump seats are among the best of their type. They are comfortable and relatively easy to access. They can be folded aside when not in use, but they are big and take up cargo space. Removing them provides an additional 15 cubic feet of cargo capacity for a maximum of 90.4 cubic feet, still less than the Cadillac Escalade (104) but significantly more than the Range Rover (75). With the rear jump seats and the second-row seats set up to carry passengers, the LX 470 still offers 39.2 cubic feet of cargo space.
Other interior features include a sophisticated security function for the remote keyless entry system, child safety-seat anchors for the second-row seat, a digital compass integrated into the auto-dimming rearview mirror, rear cupholders and cargo-net hooks.
The optional rear-seat DVD entertainment system plays movies on a 6.5-inch, wide-format overhead screen that deploys from the headliner ahead of the second row. The DVD player is mounted in the cargo area (in the right rear quarter panel) and the system includes two sets of wireless headphones and a remote control.
The navigation system screen can be used to watch DVD movies, but only when the transmission is in Park to eliminate any temptation to watch and drive at the same time. The audio portion of the movie can be played over the system while moving, though. The navigation system can be operated with voice commands.
Out on the open highway, the Lexus LX 470 is smooth and quiet. At high speeds, some wind noise comes from the vicinity of the large mirrors, but with a vehicle this immense, these mirrors are something we would not want to do without.
The 32-valve 4.7-liter V8 is smooth, quiet, and powerful. It produces strong low-rpm torque, giving it responsive low-speed performance and plenty of power, for towing up to 5,000 lbs or scaling steep terrain. The engine features double overhead camshafts (times two cylinder heads equals four camshafts total) and four valves per cylinder (times eight cylinders equals 32 valves). Lexus has boosted this engine’s power and torque for ’06 by adding VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing with intelligence), the same electronic technology used in the SC 430 sports car and Toyota Tundra pickup. Optimized valve opening and closing over a broader range of rpm has lifted the 4.7-liter’s horsepower to 275 (from 235) and torque to 332 pound-feet (from 320). It’s this last number that deserves your attention, because torque, not horsepower, is the force that propels you up steep hills and launches you away from intersections. In a heavy vehicle, especially, it’s more important than horsepower. The five-speed automatic transmission makes good use of the V8’s torque.
Last year’s LX 470 could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 9.7 seconds and cover the standing quarter-mile in 17.5 seconds, according to Lexus. That wasn’t quick by anyone’s standards, but we expect the 2006 model would score significantly better. Perhaps more important, VVT-i helps this V8 meet ULEV II emissions certification. EPA fuel-economy ratings haven’t changed, however, at just 13/17 mpg City/Highway. The LX 470 runs fine on Regular (87 octane) gas, but Lexus recommends Premium (91 octane) for optimum performance.
The suspension provides a comfortable ride on winding bac
k roads and bumpy highways, yet is capable of climbing any mountain, fording any stream. The rack-and-pinion steering provides sharp response. The steering system was upgraded for 2003 for improved maneuverability at low speeds and better steering feel at high speeds. It’s easy to turn the steering wheel in crowded parking lots, but it doesn’t isolate the driver at speed on the open road.
The LX 470 comes with an Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS), which allows the driver to adjust the damping between soft or firm settings. It’s controlled electronically using feedback from various road sensors; the system constantly adjusts the semi-active shock absorbers through 16 valve settings according to conditions. It’s a sophisticated system and it works extremely well. The LX 470 rides smoothly over unpaved trails, but inspires driver confidence with taut response on winding country roads.
Like the Range Rover, the LX 470 features adjustable ride height. Press a button and the hydropneumatic system raises and lowers the vehicle nearly four inches. This allows the driver to increase ground clearance for climbing over obstacles, or lower the ride height for highway cruising. Lowering it makes climbing in and out of the vehicle easier when all dressed up for a night on the town.
Off-road capability is among the best available. The LX 470 uses a true full-time four-wheel-drive system with a center differential that splits the power 50/50 front/rear. The system is always engaged and requires no intervention from the driver. Throw in a locking center differential, a rear limited-slip differential and lots of suspension articulation and only the driver, or worn out tires, can be blamed for sticking one of these in the mud. The system is adept at handling the rigors of slippery winter weather or deep mud or snow. The driver can shift into low range for driving on steep off-road inclines. Big 18 x 8.0-inch wheels come standard and are fitted with 275/60R18 mud-and-snow tires.
The anti-lock brake system operates even in low range and is designed to offer better performance off-road than traditional ABS by avoiding early activation on slippery slopes. ABS intervention decreases as road surface roughness increases or the grade steepens. That’s an important feature because traditional ABS can lengthen braking distances considerably on unpaved roads. Big disc brakes offer good response and seem to stop this 5,400-pound vehicle in a surprisingly short distance. Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD) helps distribute brake forces between the front and rear wheels under hard braking; this helps improves control under hard braking and can help reduce braking distances.
Three active safety technologies are tied in with the ABS to enhance driver control: Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) helps maintain traction under demanding conditions by detecting and correcting wheel slip. When it detects a loss of traction, the system applies the brakes to individual wheels to help the driver maintain control. The system also integrates a Brake Assist function that interprets a quick, hard push of the brake pedal as emergency braking and supplements the applied braking pressure to ensure maximum stopping power.
The traction control system (TRAC) further helps to reduce the chance of losing grip by using brake and throttle intervention to control wheelspin. The system provides some of the traction benefits of locked center and rear differentials while maintaining the easy steering response associated with open differentials.
The Lexus LX 470 features a beautiful interior and superior off-road capability. It provides a quiet, smooth ride and good handling. Quality, durability and reliability are ensured because it is a Lexus.
Model Line Overview
Model lineup: Lexus LX 470 ($67,295)
Engines: 275-hp 4.7-liter dohc 32-valve V8
Transmissions: 5-speed automatic
Safety equipment (standard): ABS, EBD, Brake Assist, Vehicle Skid Control, traction control, tire monitor, first aid kit, dual frontal airbags, seat-mounted side-impact airbags, curtain airbags for front and second-row, three-point seat belts in outboard seating positions and center second-row seating position, pretensioners and force limiters in driver’s and front passenger’s seat belts
Safety equipment (optional): none
Basic warranty: 4 years/50,000 miles
Assembled in: Honsha, Japan
2006 Lexus LX470 Specifications As Tested
Model tested (MSRP): Lexus LX 470 ($67,295)
Standard equipment: automatic air conditioning with smog-sensing auto-recirculation and filtration, leather upholstery, DVD-based navigation system with voice commands, Mark Levinson audio system, power windows, power mirrors, power locks, cruise control, tilt steering, trip computer, compass, digital clock, aluminum alloy wheels, power moonroof, locking rear differential, automatic on/off headlights, memory system for two drivers, color-keyed running boards, power tilt/telescoping steering column, steering wheel-mounted audio controls, three auxiliary power outlets, rear wiper and defroster, tire pressure monitor
Options as tested (MSRP): Roof rack ($220)
Destination charge: ($650)
Gas guzzler tax: N/A
Price as tested (MSRP): $68,165
Layout: four-wheel drive
Engine: 4.7-liter dohc 32-valve V8
Horsepower (hp @ rpm): 275 @ 4800
Torque (lb.-ft. @ rpm): 332 @ 3400
Transmission: 5-speed automatic
EPA fuel economy, city/hwy: 13/17 mpg
Wheelbase: 112.2 in.
Length/width/height: 192.5/76.4/72.8 in.
Track, f/r: 63.8/63.6 in.
Turning circle: 39.7 ft.
Seating capacity: 8
Head/hip/leg room, f: 40.0/58.6/42.3 in.
Head/hip/leg room, m: 39.4/57.9/34.3 in.
Head/hip/leg room, r: 36.3/56.4/27.3 in.
Cargo volume: 90.4 cu. ft.
Towing capacity: 5000 Lbs.
Suspension, f: independent
Suspension, r: live axle
Ground clearance: 9.8 in.
Curb weight: 5590 lbs.
Tires: 275/60HR18 Dunlop mud and snow
Brakes, f/r: disc/disc with ABS, EBD and Brake Assist
Fuel capacity: 25.4 gal.